Tag Archives: Training strategy

The importance of weight training in-season!

In the professional era of sport the competitive season has become longer and athletes get very little rest. The modern athlete is not comparable physically to athletes ten years ago. Modern sport science and recovery techniques continue to drive the physical capabilities of athletes forward. The modern athlete is heavier, leaner, stronger, fitter and faster than ever. Most of this comes from the continuous development of training techniques but also because of the expectations on the athlete. A professional athlete works full time. When they are not on the pitch doing skill work they are in the gym. When they are not in the gym they are in the kitchen or in the treatment rooms of physiotherapists recovering for the next session. This is the way sport is in the modern era. Those who don’t keep up will be left behind.

Youth athletes nowadays train almost as hard as the professionals. The training age and physical maturity of most youth athletes is way ahead of where it was in the past. Schools players are more driven and better coached and their physical development is much more advanced. The level of competition in schools has developed these young athletes from quite an early age. With the result that younger athletes are coping with higher training volumes and demands than ever before. See  https://hamiltonsport.com/2015/04/13/training-age/

When we look at a competitive season in most sports there is quite a short off-season. Traditionally most athletes would look to further their physical development in the off-season. In the past this may have been as long as four months. Now many athletes have no off-season or maybe only a number of weeks. This means that for many to continue to develop they must do so in-season. Recovery is the main concern with this. Tired athletes become slow physically and mentally and performance suffers. Modern technology and sport science has allowed us to monitor athletes much more closely so we can be more accurate with training. Athletes can now train just enough to elicit adaptations without hindering performance.

Good coaches monitor their athletes efficiently and in a manner which allows them to adjust training very easily. By analyzing the athlete’s performance on a number of indicator tests they can see how fatigued the athlete is. There are many techniques, from RPE rating and verbal feedback to countermovement jumps and barspeed analysis. Most coaches understand how important it is to be flexible with training and know when and what to change. Often an athlete will come into the gym expecting to lift weights but instead be given a simple mobility routine. It all depends on the monitoring and fatigue management protocols adopted by the training staff. Professional sport utilises monitoring to ensure athletes are always in the phase of training that is planned in accordance with the season goals and performance priorities.

Many believe weight training to be something which cannot be completed during the season as it fatigues athletes and slows them down. This is not always the case. When used appropriately weight training can actually be used to excite the nervous system leading to an improvement of contractile function. This means it can actually make an athlete faster for a short period of time after the session. This is known as a PAP response which you can read more about here. www.hamiltonsport.com/2015/01/31/post-activation-potentiation/

Because of the length of some seasons and competitions in relation to the off-season or rest periods, it may be necessary for an athlete to train to maintain abilities. Athletes typically begin to lose some motor capabilities after about 10 days. If they do not continue to train, the ability slowly fades away. However, it takes approximately 40% of original training load to maintain their conditioning. Continuing to train albeit at a reduced level will allow them to stay at their potential throughout a season which may last up to 10 months in some cases without a break. Waiting this long to get back in the gym would literally put a player back a full season in terms of their physical development. For younger players this would have massive implications on their career.

In addition to physical development, in-season training plays a major role in injury prevention and game preparation. Often during long seasons athletes build up imbalances which, if not corrected, can develop into chronic and acute injuries. Maintaining some strength work focused at developing a balance of strength and movement can be a very effective preventative measure.

Maintaining and S&C program is essential for most modern teams especially when some players may be called up for international duties. Leinster Rugby Imagery. Picture credit: Dáire Brennan /

Maintaining an S&C program is essential for most modern teams especially when some players may be called up for international duties. Leinster Rugby Imagery. Picture credit: Dáire Brennan

In modern sport a squad extends wider than a starting team. Subs and reserves play a much more active role as game intensity increases. At a moments notice a player may be expected to start when they may not have had game time in several weeks. The only way to prepare them may be to simulate some of the physical demands of the game in a gym setting. It is essential for all squad members to be ready to play at match intensity despite not getting adequate match time. The strength and conditioning program is extremely important to these players.

In conclusion, modern sport is rapidly developing. The physical capabilities of most athletes are also developing. There are larger demands on the athletes in terms of the amount of training required to be competitive. Fortunately modern science has allowed us to support this development. We understand the body much better nowadays. We need to embrace change and learn what we are capable of achieving. This won’t happen if we sit, wait and just rest all the time. Athletes are more motivated than ever and understand that professional sport is a full time job. Progress is essential and they and their coaches will be doing everything possible to ensure it continues. In-season strength and conditioning is now an essential component in the success of a team or athlete.

4 Ways to improve lactate clearance!

The accumulation of lactate is deemed to be a major determinant of performance during competition. Lactate is a byproduct of glycolysis. The accumulation of lactate in the muscle is linked with a significant degradation in contractile function and power production. Having the ability to prevent accumulation has a significant impact on the ability of an athlete to sustain performance. The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) is deemed to be the point at which its production exceeds its clearance. In order to delay this point an athlete must train to improve his ability to clear lactate during exercise. Here are four effective strategies to improve lactate clearance.

1) Long slow distance training (LSD)

Also referred to as “Steady-State” training LSD has great benefits for lactate clearance. Even though LSD is performed at low intensity it greatly improves the aerobic system. Having a strong aerobic base usually comes with good proportion of type 1 muscle fibers. Recent studies have shown these fibers to be very efficient at consuming lactate as fuel through a shuttle system which transports it from the blood into these muscle cells. LSD training in conjunction with Lactate producing activity can teach the body to consume lactate in this way, helping to prevent accumulation during higher intensity competition.

2) Threshold training

Threshold training is performed at and around the point of accumulation. This is arguably the most effective zone to train at as it is the “Threshold” at which the body can balance accumulation with clearance. Improving workload at this zone will transfer directly into sporting performance. It is considered to be the sweet spot in terms of sustainable workload. Performing volume at this zone will result in effective lactate management in the body. It up-regulates enzymes which promote the metabolisation of lactate and clearance. The body will also learn to buffer lactate more effectively using intercellular bicarbonate. These sessions can range between 3 and 10 minutes in duration at or around OBLA.

3) Tempo runs

These are somewhat of a combination of the previous methods. During a longer session an athlete will perform a series of high paced intervals spread throughout a longer interval held at a lower, sustainable pace. During these intervals blood lactate concentrations will increase. When the athlete drops eases of intensity, the body will now be able to clear lactate to manageable levels. This promotes how the athlete recovers from lactate accumulation while still exercising. This can be useful in competition where there are varied intensities throughout a race or short rest periods between bouts.

4) Sprint intervals

Short sprints result in a very rapid production of lactate as large type 2 fibers become very active. The body does not have sufficient time to respond and so accumulation occurs just as rapidly. By using short rest periods you only give the body a very short period in which to re-establish homeostasis and so it is forced to up-regulate clearance mechanisms. Training of this type not only improves clearance but also the athletes tolerance to lactate. Sessions of this type can vary in duration for both work and rest. The ratio of work to rest can be manipulated to achieve different results in terms of physiological response.

The after effects of excessive lactate accumulation during a race. Source :www.windsorstar.com

The after effects of excessive lactate accumulation during a race. Source :www.windsorstar.com

In general any activity that elevates the concentration of lactate in the blood will elicit a physiological response. Like any stress appropriate recovery is necessarily. A multi-directional approach must be taken to ensure that an athlete has an adequate exposure to lactate without over taxing the bodies recovery capacity. This can be a difficult balance and must take into consideration a number of factors including the age and background of the individual. If done correctly any individual will benefit greatly from giving focused time and training to helping improve how they handle lactate in their body.

Recovery! Part 1

Recovery is a particular interest of mine. It is one of my main research areas. We are currently researching different recovery interventions on isometric strength, fatigue and performance. Over the coming months I will discuss different aspects of recovery and some of the methods that can be used. For this post I’ll discuss the importance of recovery!

When it comes to training human knowledge has covered most training methods that technology and equipment can provide us. How we plan and organise training still has some room for improvement but in general there’s not many new training concepts. Recovery has now become a major area of focus as in comparison, it is still a very new area for research. So why is it important? The simple answer is because it makes a difference. In terms of human physiology our body responds to stress and adapts. These adaptations are what improve or conditioning, strength, speed, power and so on. All training is based on the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) theory. A stress is applied impacting homeostasis. The body responds to this and resists the stress. It then forces homeostasis past its starting point as a defence mechanism and a new level is set. It is the recovery stage that actual improvement takes place. If you deny yourself this improvement it will eventually lead to overtraining and burnout and certainly kill performance as homeostasis is depressed.

A professional athlete trains full time. He can train all day long without commitments to work or study etc. Often, newly turned full time athletes take the approach of rapidly increasing training volume. They are so used to struggling to fit in training that when they graduate or move into a professional setting they can easily do more. What they soon realise is they plateau. Without proper coaching they can continue on this path for months and even seasons becoming disheartened by poor performance. What they fail to realise is that recovery is just as important as the training. Being full time is what allows them to dedicate time solely on recovery which befits their training level. In many sports there is a finite amount of time to prepare. Looking at the olympics as our example. An olympic athlete may train 5 days a week for 40 weeks of the year. 5 days per week is all he can cope with. Lets say he employs a recovery strategy that takes him from 5 days to 6 days per week. He has just increased his annual training by 40 days. 40 days is an enormous amount of time in terms of competition preparation. Something that may take 15mins post training has just allowed him to train 40 days more than his fellow competitors. When you rationalise it in this way you can see the difference it can make come competition time.

Athletes make recovery a part of their schedule. Here using commercially available compression technology!

Athletes make recovery a part of their schedule. Here using commercially available compression technology!

A good athlete will be just as concerned with their recovery as with their training. There are many forms of recovery playing on many physiological responses. I will cover these in other posts and discuss some potential methods and how they work.

Fat loss for athletes!

Body composition and body mass are important for most sports. The success of an athlete can rely heavily on falling within the norms of their sports, especially where a weight category is involved. Nutrition and training are both vital in the role body composition and weight management. I will not discuss dietary strategy as it is not my are of expertise. Instead I will discuss the training considerations and strategy.

Step one is for an athlete to identify whether he needs to reduce bodymass (weight) or reduce body fat. Bodymass deals directly with bodyweight on the weighing scale with no concern for body composition. Body fat deals with body composition with possibly no influence on overall bodymass. When reducing body mass the main focus, is to create a consistent calorie deficit. How one trains doesn’t really matter as bodymass will decrease over time if calorie expenditure exceeds consumption. The issue is that this reduction will not be selective in terms of tissue loss. Both muscle and fat tissue will be lost but this is not such a good thing. In many cases an athlete will need to retain as much lean mass as possible and may even need to increase or at least maintain it. This creates a more complicated scenario where fat tissue must be the focus for reduction while avoiding any muscle tissue loss. The training strategy becomes a little more complex.

We know that in terms of metabolism, exercise at lower intensities utilise fat as fuel more effectively than high intensity exercise. The main drawback is that in terms of time efficiency it takes a relatively long period to burn sufficient calories. The other issue is that low intensity work can promote adaptations that are not so favourable for an athlete. Long periods of low intensity (LSD) training can promote a conversion of type 2 muscle fibers into fibres which more resemble the characteristics of type 1 muscle fibers. The athlete runs the risk of losing strength, speed and power. So this method must be used sparingly.

High intensity training has been touted as the magic pill for fat loss and performance in recent literature. Calorie expenditure is higher for a given work period and metabolism is elevated in the post training period. Sessions must, however be shorter as they will be more demanding. It is in this post training period where an elevated metabolism and active oxidative system plays its role in metabolising fatty acids. HIT may also promote strength, power and conditioning through a number of adaptive responses. At first glance this seems to be the obvious choice. As with most training methods it carries its disadvantages. By focusing on HIT we become reliant on the Glycolytic system during exercise. This system utilises carbohydrate metabolism and is always active even at rest when the oxidative system is dominant. Over time an athlete may promote the use of carbohydrates during metabolism which will in fact spare fat cells. If they do not consume enough carbohydrates there can also be a reduction in lean tissue as muscle cells do not get enough energy to survive.

The best strategy is to utilise both methods in an appropriate fashion. LSD can be made more effective in reducing fat and improving fat oxidisation by adding fasted LSD sessions into a program. Done before breakfast or immediately following a training session, enzymes active in fat oxidation must up-regulate to compensate for glycogen depletion. This means that less time is needed to initiate fat oxidation. HIT should then be performed in a fuelled state in a separate session to make use of its benefits. When both types of sessions are used in a balanced way that does not impede the athletes recovery, they can see all the benefits while negating the disadvantages.

As with most strategies a balance is required for optimum results. The body is exceptional at adapting to stress. Overemphasising one method over another will only display short lived success and may create problems in the long run. In the case of managing body weight and body mass a strategy must be formulated to suit the needs of the individual. A gradual and monitored approach is best for achieving long term and consistent results.

Live High Train Low

Altitude has well established benefits for an athlete. Increased red blood cell production through increased erythropoietin (EPO) levels, results in a better ability of the blood to carry and deliver oxygen. Oxygen supply is one of the critical factors determining oxidative capacity and VO2max. At increasing altitude the partial pressure of oxygen decreases. This means that oxygen defusing from the lungs to the blood is reduced. Sensors in the body detect this reduction of oxygen dissolved in the blood. A series of physiological responses then act compensate. The magnitude and “shelf life” of these responses is dependant on the duration of exposure to a high altitude (hypoxic) environment. Most athletes therefore believe that the longer they stay at altitude the more beneficial it will be for them in terms of performance. A greater oxidative capacity is a major contributing factor in aerobic endurance and performance. While there is no doubt that altitude improves an athletes physiology and oxidative capacity, it may not always benefit athletic performance.

At altitude the poor supply of oxygen will make relative efforts more intense depending on the height above sea level. The higher an athlete goes the harder exercise at relative efforts will become. In some ways this is a benefit, as the athlete can improve both mentally and physiologically. With time it can also become a disadvantage. The athlete becomes accustomed to working at lower power outputs and pace in comparison to sea level. When they return to sea level they can struggle to maintain high pace even though they are physiologically capable. Technique and exercise efficiency can be greatly diminished by the time spent at altitude. For this reason an athlete will need to find a compromise between the physiological improvements and maintenance of technique. The live high, train low model is one such strategy which has shown success in overcoming this. An athlete will spend non training hours living in a hypoxic environment and will then return to sea level for training. They can also do this artificially by creating a hypoxic environment such as an “altitude house” or by sleeping in an “oxygen tent”. In either case the athlete is in an artificially controlled environment. They now can ensure sufficient duration in hypoxia to elicit a physiological response. They do not experience the issue with training intensity as they can complete their training at a sea level environment. When this method is adopted for a number of days or weeks the athlete can experience a significant overall improvement to aerobic performance. One exception to this theory is when an athlete is preparing for a competition that is at a high altitude venue. In this case the athlete must become acclimated to their competition environment. The loss in sea level performance is acceptable as the athlete must now focus his efforts around a performance in a new environment.

cat-430-walk-in-tent-system

Oxygen tent. Source http://www.snipview.com/q/Altitude%20tent

Depending on the goals and schedule of the athlete, altitude training can be a major benefit. Like with most training concepts there is a time and a place. Multiple factors must be considered in order to create an effective training strategy. We a constantly learning from science and real world experience. New technology such as oxygen tents can now allow us to make much better use of our knowledge of physiology and performance. Coaches and athletes should make a strong effort to stay informed about rapidly improving techniques.