Category Archives: Beginner

What you need to know about staying hydrated!

We have all heard the importance of hydration. We have all been told how important it is to stay hydrated in order to perform optimally. Advice surrounding hydration always seems extremely generic. Why is hydration so important and how should we actually hydrate? Very seldom is this discussed with athletes.

Hydration is important as water is involved in almost every bodily function. When the body functions optimally it can perform optimally. If it is not functioning well then any stress applied to it is magnified. That is the short explanation as to why we should hydrate. Most will understand basic biology and the concept of osmosis. Solutes and water diffuse across a membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. In regard to the body we have many forms of these membranes, the simplest being the membrane which surrounds all cells. Water is needed for many cell activities including cell metabolism, without which a cell would cease to function. The science behind cell metabolism is fascinating in itself but not all that practical for the majority of athletes.

For endurance athletes cardiac output is a critical factor. This is a product of heart rate and stroke volume (Blood volume ejected from the heart with each beat). Blood is mostly made up of water. In cases of dehydration blood plasma volume is reduced as water is excreted through sweating etc. Water and its role during sweating is the most effective element in heat management. If our plasma volume reduces there is reduction in overall blood volume as red cells become more concentrated in less plasma. This results in the heart having to work harder to pump enough blood around the body. This increase in workload is pointless additional stress for the body. It is purely a mechanistic result of water loss from the blood. It will cause a reduction in cardiovascular capacity and overall work capacity. Similar effects occur at altitude in an effort to combat reduction in oxygen pressure in the ambient air. The body increases hormones which excrete water to concentrate the blood, as less oxygen is being absorbed into the blood with the reduction in pressure.

The stomach is a key organ in the process of hydrating. Water is one of the few substances that can be absorbed by the lining of the stomach. In saying that water is also essential downstream in the small intestine for the absorption of other compounds ie. salts, sugars and amino acids. If we take in a lot of these compounds water must accompany them as a buffer in order for them to be absorbed. This is important when we look at things like sports drinks. These drinks often have high concentration of sugars and in some cases salt. This can be problematic for the rate of absorption of water. Athletes often complain of a feeling of fluid in the stomach after drinking large quantities of these drinks. That is exactly the case. Water must follow these compounds into the small intestine.

What this means is that water on its own is often absorbed faster than a sports drink. For short term exercise plain water is a better choice for rapid hydration. During longer bouts of exercise and in hot conditions many minerals and salts are lost from the body. The loss of minerals, salts and the consumption of glucose will have a significant impact on muscular and cognitive performance. In addition there is a change in osmotic gradients. This change may hinder the absorption of water. Drinking large amounts of plain water over long durations may cause potential hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

In many cases the advice given for monitoring hydration status involves examining the colour of our urine. Dark urine signifies dehydration. Lighter colored urine signifies good hydration. The concern here is that if one drinks lots of water without replacing salts and minerals, water will have problems being absorbed if salt levels are low. It can lead one into a false sense of being properly hydrated.

 

Hydration is critical to performance and must be a part of your routine.

An athlete must consider the circumstances. Short bouts of exercise, an hour long for example will not deplete salts and therefore plain water is a good choice. For bouts much longer and/or in heat, a marathon or long day hiking for example, a hydration formula is essential. By replacing salts and other compounds we can maintain a better level of hydration as well as providing essential compounds to cell function. In addition many compounds such as salt absorb better with sugars. A hydration formula should not just contain salt for this reason. Amino acids also help with salt absorption. If one uses a formula containing these other compounds they have the added benefit of replacing glucose for energy metabolism as well as reducing cell damage and aiding in recovery.

There are many commercially available sports drinks and formulas. Some are better than others. In many cases some popular brands are driven as much by taste as they are function. Many are too highly concentrated with sugar. In these cases they would be better if watered down. The level of solute concentration should reflect the conditions but in most cases weaker concentrations are less problematic. Less obvious, effective choices for hydration are targeted for a more clinical setting. Dioralyte and Pedialyte are specifically formulated for hydration without all the extras that you may find in some commercial sports drinks. One can also make a pretty decent homemade formula using natural ingredients. Water, salt and honey can form an excellent and simple hydration formula. Adding a little glutamine to the mix will also tick the box for amino acid presence.

 

Many great options but often designed for taste preference rather than hydration needs

A favorite of ours is the following. It has been tried and tested with excellent results.

1 litre of water

6 teaspoons of honey or maple syrup

½ teaspoon of table salt

 

In terms of timing it is important to constantly manage hydration. This means consuming fluids before, during and after exercise in accordance to the environment and type of exercise. Something to note is the effect of dehydration on digestion. Often athletes prioritize eating over rehydrating. In the case of multi day events this is not the best strategy. Poor hydration can lead to poor digestion and slow the process of refueling quite dramatically. Gastrointestinal stress can lead to poor sleep and other issues which have disastrous effect on performance. In the case of cutting weight for sport, water cutting is a popular method. An individual will purposely dehydration themselves in order to reduce overall bodyweight. After weighing in, if one does not rehydrate first it can be very difficult to consume food and digest properly before competition. Often a hydration formula and efficient hydration strategy will have greater benefits than eating after a weigh in. With that in mind hydration should always be priority number one. With added glucose it may also be a fast way to restore glycogen so it is beneficial in multiple ways.

Athletes need to be practical and efficient with every aspect of their performance that they can control. Hydration is extremely important but rarely discussed in practical terms. When one considers the circumstances and has some understanding of the process one can manage the situation much more effectively. That very much applies to hydration. A little bit of thought and practice with hydration strategies can make performance more consistent and training more effective.

 

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Warning signs of over reaching.

Dealing with a large number of athletes shows a huge amount of variation and diversity. Lifestyle and physiological factors are totally different from one athlete to another. Depending on lifestyle, an individual can have stress coming from any direction. Work, study, family, training, finance and competition are just a few of the factors that can cause stress. When an athlete trains they create stress. Normally this stress elicits a positive adaptation. An individual will recover to a point that is greater than before and they see progress. This is the basis of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) theory. If one does not recover they will not improve. If they continue to put their body under stress they will eventually begin to breakdown and see a loss of ability.

 

There are many warning signs of under-recovering. These often precede overtraining and can help one avoid getting into that situation. Overtraining, depending on the severity, can take weeks to months to reverse. That may be long enough to destroy a performance and potentially a career. It is important that an athlete be aware of the warning signs and monitor themselves to avoid overtraining. Many of these signs are well documented but others not so much. Tiredness, resting heart rate and loss of performance are the typical and most obvious indicators of over doing things. A certain amount is okay and when followed by adequate recover one can see great adaptation. Overreaching is a less severe version and can be quite beneficial when planned for appropriately. The issue is that some athletes will push the boundaries here. Some believe they are capable of more than they are and can often do themselves a disservice as a result.

 

It is extremely common for athletes to ignore tiredness and continue to build training volume. They also have a tendency to increase volume when they see a dip in performance as it is the most obvious solution to them. This creates an environment for them in which overtraining can easily occur. When monitoring for overtraining it is important to look for some less obvious signs. Some pretty common things can be used as warning signs.

1) Mood swings.

Changes in mood or personality are pretty obvious signs of stress. The term “hangry” has become a buzz word around athletes. When an athlete undereats or skips a meal they often become quite narky and sensitive. Being hungry can make some athletes appear angry. This “Hangry” state can highlight that their management of nutritional factors is poor. In addition when athletes undereat they can appear to be mildly depressed. In some cases teary and emotional athletes can highlight they simply are not eating enough to recover fully. Lightening training load and a few solid meals can produce have a massive impact on an athletes mood and personality.

Loss of motivation or being unusually moody can be a sign of fatigue

Loss of motivation or being unusually moody can be a sign of fatigue

2) Minor Illness

If an athlete is constantly coming down with common colds and “sniffles” it can be an obvious sign their body is dealing with stress. If training loads are high and they are not recovering fully the immune system becomes suppressed. Undereating for training can create this scenario pretty quickly and what is considered a common occurrence depending on time of the year may actually be a sign of things being out of balance.

3) Irregular Periods

For female athletes, particularly those in endurance sports, this can be a very obvious indicator of stress. Athletes experiencing irregular or missed periods should seek medical advice to rule out underlying conditions. In many cases high energy demands and poor nutritional management can be the cause.  Excessive stress either physically or emotionally can also be a cause. Menstruation can be an excellent indicator of overall wellbeing and balance between stress and recovery.

4) Aches and pains

Some amount of pain is normal and common for athletes training intensely. However, constant aches, pains and tightness can be a sign that they are placing the musculoskeletal system under too much stress and volume. Without adequate recovery it remains in mildly damaged state. Tension can also build up in the muscles if not allowed to recover fully. New training programs and sudden increases in volume can create a little bit of discomfort short term but if it persists it may be a sign that rest is needed.

These signs are extremely common and often pretty sensitive to training and stress induced through daily life. What is important to remember is that progress is the number one goal. If an individual does not recover then they are simply wasting time and effort. Keeping a close eye on the above factors can give them a very tight accurate control over their bodies. They can be smarter and more efficient athletes if they take advantage of these indicators and learn their bodies. Successful athletes will have a great knowledge of their body and how it reacts to lifestyle and training influences. If any athlete is concerned about anything discussed it is always wise to seek medical advice to ensure there are no underlying problems. Be aware that many ailments can give clues as to how the body is coping. In many cases they can be used to an athletes advantage when they are typically seen as a nuisance.

 

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Building a Big’Ole Bench

The bench press is one of the most common exercises in the gym. It was once the most popular lift that could be done. Recently it has become a victim to trends; what is old and mainstream tends to get cast aside and vilified. Now many coaches will be of the opinion that having big bench numbers will not make you a better athlete. I say that anything that increases overall strength in any movement is useful to any athlete. While not critical it is certainly something worth having. The bench press is still one of the best upper body compound movements there is.

Still an important exercise for overall strength and power

Still an important exercise for overall strength and power

While the bench press may seem relatively simple, it is often performed pretty poorly. Before you start working on building up your bench press have a look at any of Dave Tate’s bench press videos. His technique description is about as good as it gets. It is simple and gets you in the ballpark. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_QnwAoesJvQ

From my point of view there are two key parts.

 1) Build a solid base: Jam your feet into the floor and your shoulders into the bench. Make sure you keep your head down too. If you are rock solid on the bench then when the weight becomes a struggle every bit of energy will move the bar rather than squirming you’re body around. Feet flailing in the air will never help you get force through the bar. Being solid allows for all your effort to be transferred to the bar. It is also a lot safer than being unstable.

A good stable base and keeping the elbows tight to the body makes this lift much more effective.

A good stable base and keeping the elbows tight to the body makes this lift much more effective.

 2) Keep the elbows tucked. This means elbows closer to the body which will result in the bar a bit lower on the chest at the bottom position. While this helps keep forces moving through the shoulder in a much safer way, it also helps with the first point. Wide elbows when on the bench tend to result in the chest compressing towards the bench. The shoulders then protract slightly as the athlete begins to struggle. They then begin to wiggle and one arm inevitably shoots up in an awkward path and the bar goes in every direction but up. Not the most scientific explanation but very common when novice lifters begin to fail. Failing to keep the elbows tucked can be a result of scapular instability as well. Maintaining some scapular and upper back strength exercises are a great supplement to pressing movements.

In terms of reps and sets, it depends on the goal. Generally speaking some initial volume work is great to build up musculature and help ingrain the movement pattern. For increasing strength, back off sets work wonders for bench press. After you follow a basic starting strength program this can really take things to the next level. 5/3/1 by Jim Wendler would be my suggestion for anyone starting strength. It is simple, effective and works even with the most experienced lifters. https://www.t-nation.com/workouts/531-how-to-build-pure-strengthTo work back off sets effectively, I suggest working up gradually to max set of 2 repetitions. These should be comfortable reps with no slow grinding lockouts. It will be approximately 90% of max or slightly below. Then simply complete a couple of sets of slightly higher reps at a lighter weight.

A session might look like this: (Example 1RM of 100kg)

Work up to a heavy double

Bar X5

60kg X5 reps

75kg X3 reps

80kg X3 reps

85kg X2 reps

88kg X2 reps

89kg X2 reps

Then calculate your working percentage (This example taking 75%)

Complete two sets of 6 at 75%

There is quite a large amount of activation of motor units when working up to a heavy double. When you back off the weight feels light. You can really explode off the chest with each rep. This does wonders for training the neural aspect of strength without overloading the joints too much. Reps are quicker and smoother which is exactly how you want to train. I have used this method several times with many different athletes and without a doubt it is the most effective method for rapidly increasing bench press numbers.

There are many tools to do many jobs. The bench press is a great tool in building upper body strength and power. Use it safely and effectively to increase the potential of you or your athletes performance.

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The 2 building blocks of a successful program

As we enter the summer season many athletes will now also be entering an important training phase. For most team sports we enter the offseason and for other track and field athletes it is the beginning of competition season. In both cases this time of year is extremely important for athletes. An offseason can make or break many athletes. Often the pressure and excitement can distract athletes from the real goal. Progress is always key when it comes to training. Without progress there’s not much point training.

In terms of physical development progress comes in the form of adaptation. When we train, the body is placed under stress which we must adapt to if we want to survive it. Some adaptation takes more time than others and this must be factored in. For that reason most athletes tend to leave big goals for the offseason where they have time to work on things without needing to focus on competition. The two critical components to a training program are consistency and recovery. Both tend to be taken pretty lightly. Everyone plans to be consistent and most people think they recover, but what does that really look like on the ground?

Consistency is a word kicked around a lot by coaches and it always seems to come with a motivational talk paired with team commitment. No doubt they are also important but often they cloud the issue. When I think consistency I think frequency and volume. Is the athlete training enough to support adaptation towards their goal. In some cases this may mean training twice a day and in others maybe once or twice per week. If an athlete fails to complete the required frequency then he will lose his consistency. Not only in attendance but also in progress. This may be due to hectic schedules or motivation. Consistency is the driving force of adaptation and it must be explained in a more practical way. The frequency and volume of training must reflect the training goals. This doesn’t always mean training every available minute but this is often how it is interpreted.

Consistency also blends into recovery. Recovery means reversing the loss in performance associated with the fatigue induced by training stress. The simplest forms are sleep and nutrition. Then there are a wide range of techniques all aimed at different mechanisms in the body. We need to be concerned with those aiding and promoting the adaptive process. For this reason an athlete must look at their goals for the answer. Hypertrophy is the simplest example. If an athlete wishes to increase muscle mass he must support this with adequate nutrition. Without adequate protein and energy intake growth will not occur. He can foam roll and ice bath all day long but without adequate nutrition his efforts will be in vain. The recovery must match the process.

When you combine consistency and recovery the body will display a trend. If you have trained with adequate frequency and recovered appropriately then there will be significant adaptation. If the program is suitable to the goal then you will have progress towards it. Consistency develops this trend and the trend is what delivers the results.

fitness

Most of this will appear obvious but can be the downfall of many programs. Highly motivated individuals can overthink the process. They can do too much and take too many techniques into consideration without actually taking care of the process at hand. The best programs and often the best athletes are the ones with the simplest approach. The simpler something is, the harder it is to get wrong. If you make your program something simple enough to be followed, and put in place a recovery protocol that is simple enough to do the job repeatedly, then it’s difficult to go wrong. Making small steady progress is often more beneficial than large sporadic jumps in performance.

The take away message is to start small. Make things simple and get them right. Watch the progress and slowly add and build techniques to suit you and your program. Don’t be fooled by the latest trends and don’t get over excited. Be simple, repeatable and realistic. Over time the adaptations accumulate and before you know you’ve separated yourself from many of your peers.

 

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The warm-up and performance!

A winning team or athlete will undoubtedly want to achieve two things every session. One, perform at their best for that given day and two, prevent any injury occurring. With this in mind athletes are paying more attention to their warm-up procedure as the impact of an effective warm-up has shown to play a significant role in achieving those goals. Competition tends to encourage us to find an edge or advantage over our competitors. In some cases this allows us to be innovative and improve, in others it creates distractions. The warm-up has become a monster in some cases. It is not uncommon for some teams and individuals performing excessive warm-up protocols which show more harm than benefit.

Quite recently I attended a rugby tournament and witnessed the warm-up routines of other teams. One such team’s warm-up lasted from the time we left our team bus to the kick off of our first match. A period of about 90mins. They had a wide arsenal of stretches, mobility drills and activation exercises. They also had 21 points scored against them in the first ten minutes of the game by the tournament’s wildcard entry. In my opinion they missed the point of the warm-up, which was to prepare them for the game.

An effective warm-up will prepare you for the task ahead. In order to be effective an individual or team coach must identify what they are preparing themselves for. The following will discuss the main components of a warm-up. By understanding what is needed one can structure a warm-up that is fit for their purpose.

Body temperature

This is the main priority of the warm-up. By increasing core and muscle temperature we elicit a wide range of responses which have been proven to improve performance. 1° C increase in muscle temperature from resting is associated with approximately a 4% increase in power output. The ideal temperature being approximately 37.5°C. Excess of this will likely have detrimental effects. The most effective way to increase warm-up is to perform moderate full body exercise (Approx 80% of lactate threshold) for 5-10mins depending on environmental factors. This increase should level off after approximately 15mins in normothermic conditions. Optimal muscle temperature allows for faster nerve transmission and muscle contraction.

 

Even endurance sports benefit from an effective warm-up

Even endurance sports benefit from an effective warm-up

Cardiovascular

When we begin to exercise our cardiovascular system reacts. Blood vessels dilate and constrict to direct more blood to working muscle and away from inactive muscle and organs. Increases in heart rate also allow for increased cardiac output and blood supply.

Joint mobility and flexibility

Activity and movement reduces viscosity of synovial fluid in the joints which act as a form of lubricant. In addition, stretching may be utilized to promote elasticity of muscle fibres. Some theorize that this can prepare the muscles for rapid loading and increase ranges of motion (ROM), reducing the possibility of injury. Some have argued that increased range of motion may be problematic for joint related injury depending on the nature of activity to follow. It is wise to exercise caution with the use of stretching prior to exercise. Foam rolling has also become a popular method to promote muscle elasticity and ROM. It has shown little evidence for increasing performance where ROM is not a limiting factor. Mobility drills may also be used to promote ROM but have again shown little evidence for promoting performance where issues with ROM are not present. In short unless there is tightness or an issue with mobility it is not essential.

Dynamic stretching may offer a more beneficial alternative. Basic drills can be used which closely replicate movements required during competition. Increased specificity will prepare the athlete more appropriately for their sport.

 

Stretching should be used appropriately in a warm-up routine.

Stretching should be used appropriately during a warm-up routine.

 

Post activation potentiation (PAP)

Leading on from the previous point, an effective warm-up will also provide some PAP response. This can be read about more in a previous article here https://hamiltonsport.com/2015/01/post-activation-potentiation/. Some basic ballistic style movements and dynamic stretching can provide this. It is wise to do this following the temperature increase portion of the warm-up. Some progressive bounding or jump type movements are appropriate in most cases. This may increase nervous system activity which can allow for better contractile function of the muscle. This can improve force output and reaction times.

Competition specific

Technical drills should be used to prepare the athlete mentally for the tasks they must perform. Including some technical, skill focused drills will allow for further warm-up physically which will be specific to the tasks they must perform.

 

Warm-up drills should also prepare the athlete for contact.

Warm-up drills should also prepare the athlete for contact.

 

The recommended order of warm-up should look like this.

  • Temperature ramp (Also covers cardiovascular preparation)
  • Mobility and dynamic stretching (Covers PAP response)
  • Competition specific

A full warm-up should last between 15 and 30 mins depending on the sport. It is important that the athlete’s warm-up is as efficient as possible and wastes little time. The warm-up is not the time to address mobility or flexibility issues. These should have dedicated time given to it. A warm-up is preparation for the task. I feel that far too much time is given to mobility drills and foam rolling and these have become the core of many warm-up routines. The popularity of movement as a performance variable has allowed some to go overboard and neglect other aspects of their preparation. The main priority is getting the desired increase in body temperature, especially in colder environments. It must also be noted that warm-ups should be performed as close to the event as possible and great care should be taken to maintain body temperature if there are periods between the cessation of the warm-up and the start of competition.

These are the core components of an efficient warm-up. The exact drills and procedure will depend largely on the sport itself. If your warm-up is lacking any of these components then it would be very beneficial to look at ways of adding them in. In summary a warm-up should be time efficient and fit for purpose. It should have both a general and specific portion and should always look to establish optimum body temperature. Too many mobility drills may distract the athlete from purpose and would be better placed in a training session dedicated to addressing mobility issues. It takes a little experimenting to find a balance between effort, time and effectiveness. If exercises are too intense fatigue can become an issue. It is always best to establish protocols outside competition first to avoid any issues on the day.

If you have any questions or concerns about your warm-up then do not hesitate to contact us.

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Bang for your buck: Girls new to the gym

This article was a request from a close friend who wanted simple advice for a girl starting out in the gym. No fashion or beauty advice just straight up practical advice. Normally we focus on team and sports training but the principles that ensure progress are still the same. This article will put you on track or even back on track if you’ve become lost in the vast sea of female training advice that we see in the media.

1) Lift heavy

Your number one goal in the gym should be to become stronger. In order to do so you must challenge yourself enough so the body must adapt. The weights must be heavy enough to tax your body enough that it promotes it to adapt to be capable of lifting heavier weight. In order to prevent injury you must first learn proper technique and how to lift safely. At the beginning it is a very good idea to get a few sessions with a trainer so you can learn proper and safe technique from the beginning. Choose a reputable trainer and exercise common sense. Have confidence and know that everyone gets stronger if they give it time. Don’t be put off by lack of experience; you must start somewhere.

2) Eat

There is an exceptional amount of dietary and nutritional advice out there. You must eat for fuel. You must also ensure you eat protein in order to recover from weight training. This helps grow and maintain healthy muscle. Many females believe that eating is the enemy when achieving a beach body. Eating less can often stall fat loss and muscle gain. Often eating a little more and ensuring adequate protein can kickstart the progress you want to see. Check our nutrition articles to help you learn the basics about eating for exercise. https://hamiltonsport.com/category/nutrition/

3) Have a plan

This may sound obvious but it is essential. There are days when the gym is the last place you want to be. Having a plan keeps you on track and making progress. It cuts out having to decide what to do, often you may not want to ask as it shows inexperience. Never hesitate to ask for help, we are always learning. It is hard to know where to start but there’s no point wasting time being lost in the gym. Ask a trainer at your local gym for a beginner plan; you can always contact us for advice on training if you need to.

4) Log your training

This may seem like it’s for the hardcore trainers but it is a great tool. We are motivated by progress. Progress is often hard to see on a daily basis. By keeping a log of what you do in the gym not only does it motivate you to keep training but it also helps with your plan. You know what weight you can lift and what a reasonable increase is for you each week. This can be a very powerful tool in achieving your goals.

5) Enjoy it

There are few places in the world where your efforts and dedication will be so visible. Results in the gym are very consistent and more obvious than other aspects of life. Enjoy your time in the gym and see it as a productive and healthy way to spend time. It’s easy for a beginner to be nervous and a little standoffish when it comes to lifting weights but this passes with time. The more you enjoy it the easier it will be to commit. Don’t let the fear of the unknown stand in the way of your goals.

Getting started with gym training can be daunting. Advice in the media can also make the gym very confusing. Know that we all start somewhere, follow these basic tips and things will be a lot easier. Find a trainer who you respect and trust but more importantly gives you the time and effort required to get you to your goals. Don’t be afraid to shop around with gyms and trainers so that you find one that suits you. Once again, enjoy it and good luck.

Bang for your buck: RUN!!

Whether you want to complete a marathon or finish a fun run for charity this article will help you get there. The following tips allow you to start with a good foundation for training. In order to enjoy the experience of your event, you should be well enough prepared so that it is not a hellish struggle. In order to be prepared you need to do some training. We recommend you allow yourself a minimum of four weeks consistent training to see a noticeable benefit. You don’t need to train like an Olympian but you do need to be consistent.

Step 1: Base miles

In order to complete your distance you need to be comfortable on your feet. Only by getting out running on a regular basis will you achieve this. Not only will your ligaments and muscles strengthen but you will improve fitness. Be realistic at the start and build the volume up over time. Start with the goal of 30 minutes jogging three times a week. Even if you have to break it up with some walking, being out on your feet for longer durations will help get you comfortable. This in itself can be significant when it comes to completing your race. Gradually increase the duration over time to keep increasing your fitness levels.

Step 2: Raise your thresholds.

In order to be truly comfortable on your feet and achieve your target time, you must improve your comfort at higher running pace. By raising the ceiling of your conditioning (Threshold), relative efforts become easier. For example on week one you can run at 10km/hr for one minute before you need rest. At week five, if you can run at 15km/hr for one minute, you will last significantly longer than one minute running at 10km/hr, as it will no longer be your threshold pace. The best way to achieve this is to run for short periods of time at your limit, rest and repeat multiple times for one or two sessions each week. 4x 4min runs with 4 minute gentle rest recovery will have a rapid impact on your threshold.

Step 3: Run the distance

Experience is key. If you run your race distance once or twice as practice in build up to your race, you can learn a massive amount. Pacing, incorrect shoes, incorrect clothes and what to eat or drink before a race can all be small factors which can ruin a race. By having a trial run you will know what to expect. It will give you confidence and knowledge. So often people start too fast or wear the wrong shoes only to end their race in an avoidable disaster. Having the peace of mind to know “I can do this” will make race day a lot less daunting and may even allow you to set a great time.

Step 4: Know what motivates you

Some people like to run with a partner, others need music. Whatever works for you needs to be a part of your routine. There will be times when you don’t quite feel motivated to go out and get a run finished. Having your running buddy or iPod could be the difference. Remember consistency pays off, staying motivated to do the training is a challenge sometimes. You must use what works for you to keep you on track and give yourself the best possible chance of success.

These 4 simple steps are all it takes to get started. If you stick to these basics, things will go smoothly. Even Pro athletes use these principles at the core of their training. In time you can build on these if you choose but it is essential to get the basics right from the beginning.