Tag Archives: Aerobic endurance

4 Ways to improve lactate clearance!

The accumulation of lactate is deemed to be a major determinant of performance during competition. Lactate is a byproduct of glycolysis. The accumulation of lactate in the muscle is linked with a significant degradation in contractile function and power production. Having the ability to prevent accumulation has a significant impact on the ability of an athlete to sustain performance. The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) is deemed to be the point at which its production exceeds its clearance. In order to delay this point an athlete must train to improve his ability to clear lactate during exercise. Here are four effective strategies to improve lactate clearance.

1) Long slow distance training (LSD)

Also referred to as “Steady-State” training LSD has great benefits for lactate clearance. Even though LSD is performed at low intensity it greatly improves the aerobic system. Having a strong aerobic base usually comes with good proportion of type 1 muscle fibers. Recent studies have shown these fibers to be very efficient at consuming lactate as fuel through a shuttle system which transports it from the blood into these muscle cells. LSD training in conjunction with Lactate producing activity can teach the body to consume lactate in this way, helping to prevent accumulation during higher intensity competition.

2) Threshold training

Threshold training is performed at and around the point of accumulation. This is arguably the most effective zone to train at as it is the “Threshold” at which the body can balance accumulation with clearance. Improving workload at this zone will transfer directly into sporting performance. It is considered to be the sweet spot in terms of sustainable workload. Performing volume at this zone will result in effective lactate management in the body. It up-regulates enzymes which promote the metabolisation of lactate and clearance. The body will also learn to buffer lactate more effectively using intercellular bicarbonate. These sessions can range between 3 and 10 minutes in duration at or around OBLA.

3) Tempo runs

These are somewhat of a combination of the previous methods. During a longer session an athlete will perform a series of high paced intervals spread throughout a longer interval held at a lower, sustainable pace. During these intervals blood lactate concentrations will increase. When the athlete drops eases of intensity, the body will now be able to clear lactate to manageable levels. This promotes how the athlete recovers from lactate accumulation while still exercising. This can be useful in competition where there are varied intensities throughout a race or short rest periods between bouts.

4) Sprint intervals

Short sprints result in a very rapid production of lactate as large type 2 fibers become very active. The body does not have sufficient time to respond and so accumulation occurs just as rapidly. By using short rest periods you only give the body a very short period in which to re-establish homeostasis and so it is forced to up-regulate clearance mechanisms. Training of this type not only improves clearance but also the athletes tolerance to lactate. Sessions of this type can vary in duration for both work and rest. The ratio of work to rest can be manipulated to achieve different results in terms of physiological response.

The after effects of excessive lactate accumulation during a race. Source :www.windsorstar.com

The after effects of excessive lactate accumulation during a race. Source :www.windsorstar.com

In general any activity that elevates the concentration of lactate in the blood will elicit a physiological response. Like any stress appropriate recovery is necessarily. A multi-directional approach must be taken to ensure that an athlete has an adequate exposure to lactate without over taxing the bodies recovery capacity. This can be a difficult balance and must take into consideration a number of factors including the age and background of the individual. If done correctly any individual will benefit greatly from giving focused time and training to helping improve how they handle lactate in their body.

Building the engine!

Our cardiovascular system is basically an engine. The bigger it is the more power we can produce. Like any powerful engine its performance is based on its efficiency and size. When we look at our body in terms of conditioning we should think of it like an engine. We must first build it and then fine tune it to be efficient for what we want it to do.

When we look at training we can look at it the same way. First we need to assemble the basic parts, this is the base miles in the offseason. This is what promotes the structural changes in our physiology. Our heart becomes larger and more powerful, capillarization occurs improving blood supply to the muscle fibers and in addition numbers of mitochondria increase within the cells. This process is gradual and is stimulated by large volumes of aerobic training. It is a relatively slow process but has a long lasting effect. Because longer duration is required the intensity must be relatively low in order to accumulate adequate volume without overtraining. This will gives us the foundation for our conditioning. Increasing aerobic capacity also has a vast amount health benefits associated, such as reduced blood pressure and a strong and efficient heart.

Once we build up a foundation we must then tune it. Now anaerobic style training comes into play. Anaerobic training up-regulates enzymes which promote glycolysis, the energy system utilised during high intensity. It also improves the ATP-CP energy system used during sprint type activity. The effects happen over a much shorter period of time and remain effective for a short period if training is not maintained.

HIIT has become popular because it yields results much quicker than LSD training. The issue is that the physiological changes that come from it are really only the icing on the cake. Without a strong base prior to HIT an athlete is neglecting a big part of their physiology. This is noticeable in a lot of team sports. An athlete may perform quite well at high intensity but struggle to utilise fat for fuel, causing him to tire late in a game. They also tend to recover relatively slower as their oxidative system does not have the capacity to remove lactate as effectively.

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Athlete catching breath between play. Source:http://www.rugby365.com

If an athlete wishes to have good conditioning for their sport they must build a big engine to begin with and then tune it to be suitable to their activity. Whether they use threshold work or sprint intervals to do so will depend on the nature of the sport. The point I emphasise is that a strong aerobic base should never be neglected. Regardless if the sport is an endurance sport or not a strong aerobic system will be of great benefit to most athletes as it is still a major part of their physiology.

Live High Train Low

Altitude has well established benefits for an athlete. Increased red blood cell production through increased erythropoietin (EPO) levels, results in a better ability of the blood to carry and deliver oxygen. Oxygen supply is one of the critical factors determining oxidative capacity and VO2max. At increasing altitude the partial pressure of oxygen decreases. This means that oxygen defusing from the lungs to the blood is reduced. Sensors in the body detect this reduction of oxygen dissolved in the blood. A series of physiological responses then act compensate. The magnitude and “shelf life” of these responses is dependant on the duration of exposure to a high altitude (hypoxic) environment. Most athletes therefore believe that the longer they stay at altitude the more beneficial it will be for them in terms of performance. A greater oxidative capacity is a major contributing factor in aerobic endurance and performance. While there is no doubt that altitude improves an athletes physiology and oxidative capacity, it may not always benefit athletic performance.

At altitude the poor supply of oxygen will make relative efforts more intense depending on the height above sea level. The higher an athlete goes the harder exercise at relative efforts will become. In some ways this is a benefit, as the athlete can improve both mentally and physiologically. With time it can also become a disadvantage. The athlete becomes accustomed to working at lower power outputs and pace in comparison to sea level. When they return to sea level they can struggle to maintain high pace even though they are physiologically capable. Technique and exercise efficiency can be greatly diminished by the time spent at altitude. For this reason an athlete will need to find a compromise between the physiological improvements and maintenance of technique. The live high, train low model is one such strategy which has shown success in overcoming this. An athlete will spend non training hours living in a hypoxic environment and will then return to sea level for training. They can also do this artificially by creating a hypoxic environment such as an “altitude house” or by sleeping in an “oxygen tent”. In either case the athlete is in an artificially controlled environment. They now can ensure sufficient duration in hypoxia to elicit a physiological response. They do not experience the issue with training intensity as they can complete their training at a sea level environment. When this method is adopted for a number of days or weeks the athlete can experience a significant overall improvement to aerobic performance. One exception to this theory is when an athlete is preparing for a competition that is at a high altitude venue. In this case the athlete must become acclimated to their competition environment. The loss in sea level performance is acceptable as the athlete must now focus his efforts around a performance in a new environment.

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Oxygen tent. Source http://www.snipview.com/q/Altitude%20tent

Depending on the goals and schedule of the athlete, altitude training can be a major benefit. Like with most training concepts there is a time and a place. Multiple factors must be considered in order to create an effective training strategy. We a constantly learning from science and real world experience. New technology such as oxygen tents can now allow us to make much better use of our knowledge of physiology and performance. Coaches and athletes should make a strong effort to stay informed about rapidly improving techniques.