Tag Archives: Competition

Warning signs of over reaching.

Dealing with a large number of athletes shows a huge amount of variation and diversity. Lifestyle and physiological factors are totally different from one athlete to another. Depending on lifestyle, an individual can have stress coming from any direction. Work, study, family, training, finance and competition are just a few of the factors that can cause stress. When an athlete trains they create stress. Normally this stress elicits a positive adaptation. An individual will recover to a point that is greater than before and they see progress. This is the basis of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) theory. If one does not recover they will not improve. If they continue to put their body under stress they will eventually begin to breakdown and see a loss of ability.

 

There are many warning signs of under-recovering. These often precede overtraining and can help one avoid getting into that situation. Overtraining, depending on the severity, can take weeks to months to reverse. That may be long enough to destroy a performance and potentially a career. It is important that an athlete be aware of the warning signs and monitor themselves to avoid overtraining. Many of these signs are well documented but others not so much. Tiredness, resting heart rate and loss of performance are the typical and most obvious indicators of over doing things. A certain amount is okay and when followed by adequate recover one can see great adaptation. Overreaching is a less severe version and can be quite beneficial when planned for appropriately. The issue is that some athletes will push the boundaries here. Some believe they are capable of more than they are and can often do themselves a disservice as a result.

 

It is extremely common for athletes to ignore tiredness and continue to build training volume. They also have a tendency to increase volume when they see a dip in performance as it is the most obvious solution to them. This creates an environment for them in which overtraining can easily occur. When monitoring for overtraining it is important to look for some less obvious signs. Some pretty common things can be used as warning signs.

1) Mood swings.

Changes in mood or personality are pretty obvious signs of stress. The term “hangry” has become a buzz word around athletes. When an athlete undereats or skips a meal they often become quite narky and sensitive. Being hungry can make some athletes appear angry. This “Hangry” state can highlight that their management of nutritional factors is poor. In addition when athletes undereat they can appear to be mildly depressed. In some cases teary and emotional athletes can highlight they simply are not eating enough to recover fully. Lightening training load and a few solid meals can produce have a massive impact on an athletes mood and personality.

Loss of motivation or being unusually moody can be a sign of fatigue

Loss of motivation or being unusually moody can be a sign of fatigue

2) Minor Illness

If an athlete is constantly coming down with common colds and “sniffles” it can be an obvious sign their body is dealing with stress. If training loads are high and they are not recovering fully the immune system becomes suppressed. Undereating for training can create this scenario pretty quickly and what is considered a common occurrence depending on time of the year may actually be a sign of things being out of balance.

3) Irregular Periods

For female athletes, particularly those in endurance sports, this can be a very obvious indicator of stress. Athletes experiencing irregular or missed periods should seek medical advice to rule out underlying conditions. In many cases high energy demands and poor nutritional management can be the cause.  Excessive stress either physically or emotionally can also be a cause. Menstruation can be an excellent indicator of overall wellbeing and balance between stress and recovery.

4) Aches and pains

Some amount of pain is normal and common for athletes training intensely. However, constant aches, pains and tightness can be a sign that they are placing the musculoskeletal system under too much stress and volume. Without adequate recovery it remains in mildly damaged state. Tension can also build up in the muscles if not allowed to recover fully. New training programs and sudden increases in volume can create a little bit of discomfort short term but if it persists it may be a sign that rest is needed.

These signs are extremely common and often pretty sensitive to training and stress induced through daily life. What is important to remember is that progress is the number one goal. If an individual does not recover then they are simply wasting time and effort. Keeping a close eye on the above factors can give them a very tight accurate control over their bodies. They can be smarter and more efficient athletes if they take advantage of these indicators and learn their bodies. Successful athletes will have a great knowledge of their body and how it reacts to lifestyle and training influences. If any athlete is concerned about anything discussed it is always wise to seek medical advice to ensure there are no underlying problems. Be aware that many ailments can give clues as to how the body is coping. In many cases they can be used to an athletes advantage when they are typically seen as a nuisance.

 

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The importance of weight training in-season!

In the professional era of sport the competitive season has become longer and athletes get very little rest. The modern athlete is not comparable physically to athletes ten years ago. Modern sport science and recovery techniques continue to drive the physical capabilities of athletes forward. The modern athlete is heavier, leaner, stronger, fitter and faster than ever. Most of this comes from the continuous development of training techniques but also because of the expectations on the athlete. A professional athlete works full time. When they are not on the pitch doing skill work they are in the gym. When they are not in the gym they are in the kitchen or in the treatment rooms of physiotherapists recovering for the next session. This is the way sport is in the modern era. Those who don’t keep up will be left behind.

Youth athletes nowadays train almost as hard as the professionals. The training age and physical maturity of most youth athletes is way ahead of where it was in the past. Schools players are more driven and better coached and their physical development is much more advanced. The level of competition in schools has developed these young athletes from quite an early age. With the result that younger athletes are coping with higher training volumes and demands than ever before. See  https://hamiltonsport.com/2015/04/13/training-age/

When we look at a competitive season in most sports there is quite a short off-season. Traditionally most athletes would look to further their physical development in the off-season. In the past this may have been as long as four months. Now many athletes have no off-season or maybe only a number of weeks. This means that for many to continue to develop they must do so in-season. Recovery is the main concern with this. Tired athletes become slow physically and mentally and performance suffers. Modern technology and sport science has allowed us to monitor athletes much more closely so we can be more accurate with training. Athletes can now train just enough to elicit adaptations without hindering performance.

Good coaches monitor their athletes efficiently and in a manner which allows them to adjust training very easily. By analyzing the athlete’s performance on a number of indicator tests they can see how fatigued the athlete is. There are many techniques, from RPE rating and verbal feedback to countermovement jumps and barspeed analysis. Most coaches understand how important it is to be flexible with training and know when and what to change. Often an athlete will come into the gym expecting to lift weights but instead be given a simple mobility routine. It all depends on the monitoring and fatigue management protocols adopted by the training staff. Professional sport utilises monitoring to ensure athletes are always in the phase of training that is planned in accordance with the season goals and performance priorities.

Many believe weight training to be something which cannot be completed during the season as it fatigues athletes and slows them down. This is not always the case. When used appropriately weight training can actually be used to excite the nervous system leading to an improvement of contractile function. This means it can actually make an athlete faster for a short period of time after the session. This is known as a PAP response which you can read more about here. www.hamiltonsport.com/2015/01/31/post-activation-potentiation/

Because of the length of some seasons and competitions in relation to the off-season or rest periods, it may be necessary for an athlete to train to maintain abilities. Athletes typically begin to lose some motor capabilities after about 10 days. If they do not continue to train, the ability slowly fades away. However, it takes approximately 40% of original training load to maintain their conditioning. Continuing to train albeit at a reduced level will allow them to stay at their potential throughout a season which may last up to 10 months in some cases without a break. Waiting this long to get back in the gym would literally put a player back a full season in terms of their physical development. For younger players this would have massive implications on their career.

In addition to physical development, in-season training plays a major role in injury prevention and game preparation. Often during long seasons athletes build up imbalances which, if not corrected, can develop into chronic and acute injuries. Maintaining some strength work focused at developing a balance of strength and movement can be a very effective preventative measure.

Maintaining and S&C program is essential for most modern teams especially when some players may be called up for international duties. Leinster Rugby Imagery. Picture credit: Dáire Brennan /

Maintaining an S&C program is essential for most modern teams especially when some players may be called up for international duties. Leinster Rugby Imagery. Picture credit: Dáire Brennan

In modern sport a squad extends wider than a starting team. Subs and reserves play a much more active role as game intensity increases. At a moments notice a player may be expected to start when they may not have had game time in several weeks. The only way to prepare them may be to simulate some of the physical demands of the game in a gym setting. It is essential for all squad members to be ready to play at match intensity despite not getting adequate match time. The strength and conditioning program is extremely important to these players.

In conclusion, modern sport is rapidly developing. The physical capabilities of most athletes are also developing. There are larger demands on the athletes in terms of the amount of training required to be competitive. Fortunately modern science has allowed us to support this development. We understand the body much better nowadays. We need to embrace change and learn what we are capable of achieving. This won’t happen if we sit, wait and just rest all the time. Athletes are more motivated than ever and understand that professional sport is a full time job. Progress is essential and they and their coaches will be doing everything possible to ensure it continues. In-season strength and conditioning is now an essential component in the success of a team or athlete.

Lifestyle for maximum performance.

This article comes by request from some of the athletes we work with. Often athletes are placed under quite stressful environments both physically and emotionally. Training volume, competition stress, exams and possibly work commitments all contribute to general stress levels. In order to get the best performance, an athlete must manage his lifestyle. In many cases stress is unavoidable and taking rest is not always possible. In order to maintain performance an athlete must manage his/her lifestyle in order to stay healthy and keep recovery effective.

Having lived with many athletes in many scenarios there is often a situation where there are multiple competitions in a very short timeframe. Whether it be qualifying heats, a tournament or just a heavy training block, recovery time could be very short. In these situations there are a number of things which must be considered as they can be quite detrimental.

Sleep

Adequate sleep is absolutely essential. There is no exact or perfect amount but we recommend 8-10 hours with 20 min naps during the day where possible. Early in a competition week less sleep may seem to have little negative impact. It will catch up with the athlete though, so discipline is essential to ensure it does not become an issue as days pass.

Nutrition

Nutrition is also essential during competition. Athletes cannot eat for enjoyment, they must eat for function during these periods. Ensure that there is adequate or even a surplus of both protein and carbohydrate. Carbohydrate provides fuel essential to exercise. Protein repairs cells and is essential for recovery. A calorie surplus is normally hard to achieve but it should be the goal during competition. It may also be a good time to include a broad spectrum multivitamin. The immune system is often taxed heavily and while a balanced diet should cover this, it is good to have the added back up. Clean whole foods are best. Keep things simple during this period; often athletes need to rely on restaurants during these periods and must ensure they do not get tempted.

Nutrition is key to having enough energy fortraining camps and competition.

Nutrition is key to having enough energy for training camps and competition.

Hydration is also very important. Even when urine is clear it does not necessarily mean you are hydrated. Investing in hydration tablets is a good way to ensure salts are replaced, ensuring fluids get absorbed as opposed to flushed through. This is particularly important in hot climates.

Alcohol

Even during competition some athletes still want to go out for a drink. Maybe to celebrate a pool stage win or just to relax. Whatever the reason one or two drinks will not have a huge impact. Having more than this however, will have a massive negative impact. Dehydration as well has glycogen replenishment both become an issue. Long nights cut down on sleep and standing all night in clubs or the bar all take a toll.

Activity

Sir Chris Hoy said “Never stand when you can sit, never sit when you can lie down”. This is a good way to think. Often athletes spend their rest days on their feet the whole day and it becomes counter productive. Listen to Sir Chris; it worked for him.

Maintenance

Stretching, foam rolling and massage on off days can be quite beneficial. In many cases tension in the muscles is reduced. This can relieve pain and help restore muscle function. It can greatly aid the recovery process.

Relax

When you do get a chance to rest it is important to relax. For some that means staying in front of the TV, for others it’s going sightseeing. Some people need to stay busy to distract themselves and that’s fine. The trick is to avoid overthinking and replacing physical stress with emotional stress.

Some of these seem very obvious but a group of guys on a competitive tour can often lose discipline. Similar to a phone battery when a competition or tour starts the battery is full and there is no concern for energy usage. As the battery gets low there is a mad panic to conserve energy. Inexperienced athletes fail to recognize these issues early enough and they learn the hard way. Sometimes they may also lack the discipline. Often lapses early in the week only take effect later in the week, so going by feel is not a wise approach. By supporting recovery via lifestyle we tend to experience less injury and sickness during a season. Better recovery leads to a healthier body. Chronic stress will eventually take effect. Some more injury prone athletes may need to look towards their lifestyle as a possible contributing factor. The best thing is to form a routine and stick to it regardless of situation. It’s the little slips in discipline that catch athletes out.

Training for your first race.

It’s the summer time and time to get outdoors and get active. Whether you are looking to satisfy a competitive streak, trying to stay fit or just looking for something new to do with friends, competitions are great to look forward to. Tough mudders, Hell and back challenge, Color runs, triathlons and marathons are increasingly popular events. But where to start if you want to compete and complete one of these? This article is aimed at helping you to get yourself into a position where you can compete, have fun and finish the race.

Step 1: Make a plan

Decide what kind of race you want to do. Do you like the slow steady aspect of a marathon or the variety and challenge of a tough mudder. This will decide a lot of what you need to do to prepare for your race. Pick a realistic timeframe in which to train and a distance which is realistic for you right now.

Step 2: Buy a heart rate monitor (HRM)

There are many merits to heart rate training which have already been discussed in previous articles. To keep things simple a HRM will allow you to make each session efficient and make every bit of effort count towards your performance. Running on how you feel will only get you so far and a lot of your efforts might not necessarily be helping. HRM will make your training a lot more beneficial.

Step 3: Start

Sometimes showing up is half the battle. Just by getting out and getting a few runs will have a very significant benefit. Often the start is the most daunting part. Getting a few runs in will help get you over the break-in soreness of new exercise. It can also help prevent blisters and other nasty issues that can ruin your first race experience. The initial response to training is also quite remarkable. Just a couple of runs could turn what could be a living hell into a quite manageable and enjoyable experience.

Step 4: Pace yourself

Once you get started the next thing will be having discipline. A gradual increase in training is more sustainable both mentally and physically. Beginners have a great tendency to go all out for their first week only to be too sore and tired to get past week two. Let yourself recover and be in a situation where you want to do more rather than dreading the next session because you are so sore. Over time this will be better than beating yourself into the ground each time. It will also help the lazier types who will dread their next session a little less if they enjoyed the previous one.

Step 5: The next step.

Once you become comfortable running or doing whatever the activity is, you now need to become organized with training to keep moving forward. This is where the HRM comes in handy. While you may not be ready for HR zone training you can start getting familiar with how the monitor works. Try doing your regular run whilst maintaining a nice steady heart rate. It can take practice to learn how to manage your pace and breathing to stay in a heart rate zone. Beginners often go off and run as hard as they can letting their heart rate jump up and down. This has little benefit to them; by focusing on keeping their heart rate nice and low and steady they will be prepared to use their HRM better and more effectively for their next race.

The most important thing about racing is that you enjoy it. It is harder to enjoy something which makes you feel like you are about to die. In order to enjoy your hobby you must prepare yourself enough to make it possible. Things take time and you should realize that by just getting moving you’re heading in the right direction. Don’t think of training as a dreaded necessity; it is your hobby, enjoy the sessions and gradually build yourself up. Don’t leave it to the week before a race to train, you’ll only risk disaster and possibly ruin the whole experience for yourself.

Alcohol and athletes!

Check out our recent article on how alcohol interacts with our body during training and competition. As featured in BOXROX magazine!

http://www.boxrox.com/alcohol-crossfit-performance/

It’s never wrong to be strong!

There are very few sports where absolute strength is unimportant. Regardless of whether or not the athlete’s bodyweight is important to performance, strength is always beneficial. A strong athlete will often be able to make up for skill more often than we like to admit. We have all seen clumsy, brutish athletes simply overpower and overwhelm more skilled opposition. In combat sports the argument is that two fighters of equal skill, bodyweight will be the defining factor. This is the reason for weight classes. Now, in a particular weight class we recognize that the stronger fighter will have the advantage.

Despite this we still argue that strength isn’t everything. While I believe other factors are just as important I will present a case for absolute strength being a critical factor. First we will look at the debate of relative strength. The Powerlifter/strongman vs. Olympic lifter is one such example. On one hand we have the Olympic lifter, a master technician who can shift weight more efficiently than most other athletes. They have incredible strength relative to bodyweight. Then we look at a powerlifter or strongman. They demonstrate tremendous strength while not being as technically efficient as an Olympic lifter. They also have much greater bodyweight which diminishes their strength to weight ratio. The following video shows how they compare when asked to squat their own bodyweight for max repetitions.

While the strongman and Olympic lifter achieve the same total reps the powerlifter has a greater total load lifted. Work done is an extremely important factor in all sports. This simply demonstrates that despite him not achieve the same reps his absolute strength allows him to beat more efficient lifters.

In the case of endurance athletes the argument may not be as obvious. Endurance athletes must sustain workloads in order to be successful. Our initial thought may be that their conditioning is going to be the critical factor. Again this is not the case. The greater an athlete’s maximal power output is, the easier he can manage submaximal work. Relative workloads become less intense. An athlete who must sustain 300watts when his max is 350watts will struggle against an athlete who maintains 300watts with a max of 400watts.

Crossfit athletes are also a very good example of this. They are often prescribed workloads which disregard any differences in the size or strength level of an athlete. In this case an athlete who must complete 20 deadlifts of 100kg, having a max effort of 150kg will need to work much harder than an athlete who has a max effort of 200kg. The first athlete is lifting 75% of their max in comparison to 50% with the second. This allows for a large advantage which may be too great to overcome even with a more efficient technique.

While I do not advocate neglecting technique or conditioning, it is important to realize the advantage that absolute strength provides. A weak yet technically good athlete will automatically be at a disadvantage. For this reason it is a very good idea to ascertain strength standards which athletes should look to achieve in their discipline. If they fail to do so it may highlight where they might struggle during competition. Very often direct attention to strength development can make a very significant impact on an athlete’s performance. Neither coach nor athlete should ever disregard the benefits of an effective strength program. It is often overlooked especially in technical sports. At high levels of competition this oversight may be the weakness that gives the opposition the opportunity they need to win.

Conditioning for the competitive Crossfitter!

Crossfit can seem like a daunting undertaking for many coaches. It’s not so different to other sports. It should be viewed similarly to team sports where there are multiple components required to perform. One thing I think needs to be addressed is the intensity of a WOD (Workout of the Day). Many believe that if you aren’t redlining or pushing the limits then it’s not tough enough or productive. While skill and strength work may be done at lower intensity I feel Metcons are a source of concern. They tend to neglect lower intensity steady state work. Several big names in crossfit performed poorly in the endurance style events. 2011, 2012 and 2014 had events which brought some of top competitors to their knees.

Many wondered why the “Fittest Athletes on Earth” struggled on “Weekend Warrior” style activities. Some blamed the lack of skillset, others the heat and the competition intensity. Physiologically I think there is quite an obvious answer. These athletes are over reliant on glycolytic metabolism. When you train at high intensity repeatedly you adapt to that environment. Glycolysis is the dominant energy system and it will increase in terms of capacity when training.

Oxidative metabolism can be improved when training at high intensity but only through a few mechanisms. Many processes involved in oxidation can only be improved with volume and duration. This is neglected by short high intensity type training. I believe this is a major missing link.

Our glycogen stores are relatively small and can be exhausted quite quickly. The greater our glycolytic capacity, the quicker we deplete glycogen. We cannot sustain activity of this type for long. We need an aerobic base to support our performance. Fat oxidization is a much more sustainable source of energy. The greater the oxidative capacity the higher the sustainable workload. One way to look at this is thinking of our aerobic base as our cruising speed. Our anaerobic and ATP-CP systems are our afterburner.

The following graphic shows three athletes. Athlete A has a strong base (Oxidative system), an above average anaerobic capacity (Glycolytic system) and an above average ATP-CP capacity from his HIT training. Athlete B has an above average aerobic system but relies heavily on his anaerobic capacity. His ATP-CP stores are again average. Athlete C is our average weekend warrior for comparison. Untitled While athlete A and B are quite close in their overall work capacity, Athlete A has a better sustainable work capacity. His aerobic base allows him to maintain a high work rate. Athlete B almost matches Athlete A overall, but will never be as competitive when activity is of long duration. He may be able to complete short intense workouts with similar or better performances than Athlete A, but can only maintain high intensity for a short period.

It is essential for an athlete’s conditioning that some period of his training regime include LSD style work. This ensures that he has a strong aerobic foundation to build upon. Longer duration, volume style training promotes structural changes which have great benefit to the cardiovascular system.

Athletes of any sport should never neglect their aerobic work. It may seem boring and time consuming, but it is necessary. Recent media has given LSD style training a bad name, and cast a shadow over it. While HIT style work may be very effective overall it does not cover everything. Over utilizing it or neglecting other areas will undoubtedly create weaknesses in an athlete’s physiology. In a sport like Crossfit, these small holes in an athlete’s capabilities may cost them dearly in competition.

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Jetlag and the athlete!

It is common for athletes to travel long distances for both competition and training. Seasonal differences may make travel essential in sports where weather is an important factor. Jetlag becomes an issue when an athlete has to cross multiple time zones. The reason is that human circadian rhythms are not synchronized with the surrounding environment.

This post will discuss the cause of jetlag, the impact it may have and some ideas for managing it. In addition to jetlag there are other travel related issues that can contribute. I will discuss those separately as they deserve direct attention.

The body clock is a system which co-ordinates hormones in our body in response to environmental factors. This allows our body to cycle through periods of readiness and rest. It is essential that we have this ability to avoid over stressing our systems. Sunlight is one of the major influences in this cycle. When we wake in the morning sunlight stimulates the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) through the retina of our eyes. This is basically our start up switch for the day. When the sun sets, the pineal gland, which is linked to the SCN, is stimulated to secrete melatonin. This hormone promotes sleep. During daylight this secretion is suppressed. This process can also be influenced to a lesser degree, by artificial light. The body clock disruption also impacts other natural body rhythms such as body temperature, blood pressure and appetite.

This disruption to circadian rhythms can cause sleep disturbance, fatigue, disorientation, headache, loss of appetite and a generally poor mood state. It is not unreasonable to believe this will cause a decrease in motivation in the athlete. Decreased alertness and readiness to perform have obvious implications for performance.

In terms of management there are a few ways to totally avoid jet lag. Serious athletes need to make a record of their experiences with jet lag and how they feel and cope individually. Each athlete is different and there are varying degrees of susceptibility to the symptoms. Some find the effects lessened depending on direction of travel. Eastward travel appears to have the greatest impact on jetlag.

It is generally accepted that for each time zone shift. 24hrs is required to return to normal rhythms. If possible an athlete should plan to arrive at a venue with this time frame in mind. If they travel through 7 time zones then they should aim to arrive with 7 days to adjust back to normal. In addition the athlete should try and adopt the schedule of the new time zone as soon as possible. This means setting their watch to the new time and making an attempt to eat, sleep and exercise on this new schedule. Some of this may be possible in the weeks leading up to travelling. For example an athlete can train later in the day or go to bed a little later etc. This may be advisable when they are travelling close to competition without adequate time in the new venue.

The main focus should be on adjusting as fast as possible to the new time zone. The effects of jetlag are hard to avoid. Instead of trying to ignore or avoid it, an athlete should accept the situation and learn to manage it. Over time the individual will learn what works best at minimizing the effects allowing them to perform at their best. Hopefully these strategies can help them to do this.

Sleep and Competition

This post comes in response to a question we received from a reader. “Why is getting a good night sleep important before competition?”

Sleep is restorative and not preparatory in terms of physiological function. When we sleep there is a down regulation of the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS). This is our “Fight mode” which reacts to stress and allows us to “Perform”. The opposite is the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS). This is our “Rest Mode”. It allows the organs to dial back on activity and gives them a chance to recover fully. When in rest mode the immune system is highly active. Time and energy goes into repairing damaged tissues and resupplying fuel stores. If we were constantly in fight mode the body would eventually break down and the safety stops would be activated. Our immune system would also become depressed and we would become more susceptible to infections and illness.

Studies examining the physiological response to impaired or reduced sleep prior to competition have shown no significant negative impact. It does not have a direct impact on physiological capacity or function. However, mental and cognitive function are significantly reduced. This on its own will cause noticeable decrements in performance. In terms of an athletes mood state there will be a drastic decline in motivation depending on the individual. Their ability to push themselves mentally and stay alert will be reduced.It is also important to note that we are discussing lack of sleep rather than a night on the town. The later has many other factors added to the mix which can cause issues.

When an an athlete may be competing or training for multiple consecutive days, sleep plays a restorative role. It becomes a major part of the bodies natural recovery system. Disturbed or impaired sleep my hinder the restorative processes that have been mentioned from taking place. The ability of an athlete to recover is vital in maintaining performance when there are multiple days of activity.

From a practical perspective, an athlete should always try to get adequate sleep. The optimal amount will vary from one individual to another. If an athlete misses sleep before the competition has started they should place their focus on mental preparation and motivation as this will be the site for concern. After the race they should look to get sleep for both mental and physiological benefits. Inadequate sleep will result in poor recovery which will likely result in a drop in performance on consecutive competition days.

Athletes should make note of what is normal for them and what lets them perform at their best. Having a record of sleep is a good tool to allow an athlete identify when there might be an issue. This can be useful in the grand scheme as certain trends in sleep patterns can be identified and managed. Many athletes suffer from sleep disturbances as a result of nutrition, travel, stress and a wide range of factors which can be managed.

In conclusion, a lack of sleep before a big competition is not ideal preparation for an athlete. It is not always avoidable and so it is important for them to understand how it might effect them. It is a factor which should be monitored and managed as part of an athletes routine.

Recovery tools: Compression Garments!

Recovery is one of the most important factors when it comes to human performance. There are many recovery methods available all dealing with certain physiological mechanisms. In this post I will discuss the use of compression garments and how they seek to increase recovery rate.

The use of compression garments has, become quite popular recently and there are several brands providing many different options. The basic theory upon which they work is quite simple. When we contract our muscles, the fibers squeeze against the surrounding blood vessels. When we relax these vessels are released. This natural process can aid circulation as it helps promote blood flow through the vasculature. This is particularly beneficial to the lower limbs, where the blood pumped back towards the heart must compete with gravity. This return flow is known as “venous return”. It takes blood that has been deoxygenated by the muscles back to the lungs for re-oxygenation. It then returns to the heart which pumps it back around to the muscles again.

Compression garments provide external pressure on the limbs, artificially causing a similar compression on the blood vessels. This extra compression helps venous return in the same way contracting muscles do. When we exercise we increase the rate at which the blood becomes deoxygenated and must in return, increase the rate of re-oxygenation. In this case compression garments can potentially be beneficial during exercise by promoting circulation. They have a number of other benefits during exercise but I shall focus on the recovery aspect for now.

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When we are exercising our muscles produce a large amount of metabolites. These metabolites will eventually break down and dissipate with some rest. The issue is that when we stop exercising we generally rest in a fairly stationary position. Sitting stationary these metabolites do not clear as well and can accumulate in the extremities. Having compression garments may provide the improvement to venous return without having to do much physically. This is where compression garments could have their greatest influence on recovery rate as they can work will the athlete rests.

Compression garments can also help prevent and reduce swelling. During intense exercise we can cause damage to cells which leak fluid into the surrounding tissue. This produces swelling. In most cases swelling can be considered part of the healing process. It can also cause a sense of tightness and discomfort. In this case, extra compression may prevent excessive swelling and tightness during competition and training days.

In terms of performance, research on compression garments is still largely inconclusive. There’s a fairly simple reason for mixed results. For garments to work they must provide adequate compression. Owing to the fact that we are all sized a bit differently, generic sizings for garments may not work for everybody. Anecdotal evidence suggests different brands work better for different people based on individual fitting etc. Despite this we recommend their use as its another tool in an athletes arsenal. They can be useful during activity, at rest, and during travel.

Such garments will not turn a weekend warrior into an Olympian overnight. They can however, when used in part of a larger scale strategy, allow an athlete to recover at a slightly faster rate. When dealing with recovery it is important to try be as thorough as possible as it is a factor that is largely controllable.

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