Tag Archives: Overtraining

Train smart! Auto regulating your training

For most of us when we train we use a predetermined load to dictate intensity. For endurance type training we may use split times or wattages. Strength athletes may use % of 1 rep max (1RM) This all ensures we are working within the desired ranges to get the most progress. As technology becomes more accessible we are relying on the numbers from our training more and more. This is partly because our scientific knowledge is improving and partly because we are now quite a tech savy society who like gadgets and gizmos. For the most part it is good that we can organize and be more accurate with our training.

Human nature often takes us to the extreme. The numbers can become a dictator rather than a guide. Many athletes become bogged down in the numbers. If they fail to hit a certain target on a given day the session is a disaster. This can do strange things for motivation. Some may become despondent and others become frantic in making up for failure. A panicked athlete tends to make strange moves and this can have a detrimental effect on the overall plan.

Something we all need to remember is our training status. This is also referred to as readiness to train. In many cases the pre determined numbers don’t consider this. In some cases they do. If our percentages are based on our best performances then we are comparing ourselves to us at our 100% best. This can create issues. For example if we lose sleep or have exams or any sort of emotional stress our body will not be at 100%. Dehydration, hot weather, cold weather, missing a meal or even the wrong shoes can impact on performance. Our targets on paper may not take this into consideration. Many determined athletes may force a performance in training as a result. This has some major implications for performance and recovery down the line.

In order to avoid such a scenario from occurring an athlete may incorporate some form of auto-regulatory management of training. This basically ensures that the athlete alters load based on readiness to train.


In endurance sports many athletes work off wattage based on physiological testing conducted prior to their training block. Both wattages and Heart rate (HR) are normally measured during these tests. The great thing about HR is that it reflects readiness to train. HR variability is a good indicator of fatigue. Higher resting HR suggests greater fatigue or an incomplete level of recovery. An elevated HR will also be present during training. So for any given load or wattage the HR will be elevated. If the athlete used HR as the determinant of training load he might still cycle at 40% of HR max but the wattage may be lower than an optimal 40%. This does not matter as the athlete is at 40% capacity for that given day. If that’s his plan for the day then he will achieve the same thing without exceeding recovery. If an athlete only used wattage he may force his body to reach a wattage but his heart rate may increase to 60% and exceed daily prescriptions. If he does this regularly he or she will be following a different program than originally planned. They will actually be training out of their zones. For that reason many athletes may want to use HR to dictate training load and monitor wattage or split times as a means of feedback on performance.

Heart rate based training is quite effective and may be more beneficial in the long term to reduce overtraining.

Heart rate based training is quite effective and may be more beneficial in the long term to avoid overtraining.


Strength athletes are just as susceptible to these issues. Normally strength athletes train based on 1RM which may be tested at monthly intervals. While this is a very practical and largely successful method, some advanced athletes may run into problems. We can see that for team sport athletes weekly competition makes percentage based training very problematic as weekly loads vary massively. Again mundane things like work schedules, study and diet can also impact our daily readiness to train. It is extremely difficult to control all factors involved. 80% today may be more like 90% tomorrow. For the tech orientated individual something like a Gymaware or Tendo unit may be a good idea. There are good guidelines available which can be used to monitor the speed of the barbell. This can be used to keep you within the ranges acceptable for your goals. It will also take into consideration how you lift on that given day. As long as you are within speed ranges you avoid exceeding your training intensity.

Another less scientific method is using a daily training max. On a given day you may work up to a 1RM for a given lift. This would not necessarily be a true 1RM but something that can be achieved without needing to get fired up, or creating any substantial fatigue. Some may put a time cap on establishing this 1RM, for example 10mins to establish 1RM. The athlete would then perform working sets based on a percentage of this daily 1RM. This can be a very effective way for an athlete to train without any additional technology.

Regulation of training intensity is very important for an athlete. Most athletes now understand that training smart is as important as training hard. While we don’t want to go overboard with the concerns around our training we do want to give ourselves the best possible chances to progress. After all that is why we train. A good coach should be looking to factor in methods of both monitoring and prescribing appropriate loads for training. It is quite easy to push an athlete; it does not necessarily mean that you are improving them. Experiment to see what is practical and effective for your athletes and training. Always remember consistent progress is the real goal!


If you enjoyed this article please like and share with a friend. Don’t forget to sign up for our free newsletter below.

Recovery! Part 1

Recovery is a particular interest of mine. It is one of my main research areas. We are currently researching different recovery interventions on isometric strength, fatigue and performance. Over the coming months I will discuss different aspects of recovery and some of the methods that can be used. For this post I’ll discuss the importance of recovery!

When it comes to training human knowledge has covered most training methods that technology and equipment can provide us. How we plan and organise training still has some room for improvement but in general there’s not many new training concepts. Recovery has now become a major area of focus as in comparison, it is still a very new area for research. So why is it important? The simple answer is because it makes a difference. In terms of human physiology our body responds to stress and adapts. These adaptations are what improve or conditioning, strength, speed, power and so on. All training is based on the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) theory. A stress is applied impacting homeostasis. The body responds to this and resists the stress. It then forces homeostasis past its starting point as a defence mechanism and a new level is set. It is the recovery stage that actual improvement takes place. If you deny yourself this improvement it will eventually lead to overtraining and burnout and certainly kill performance as homeostasis is depressed.

A professional athlete trains full time. He can train all day long without commitments to work or study etc. Often, newly turned full time athletes take the approach of rapidly increasing training volume. They are so used to struggling to fit in training that when they graduate or move into a professional setting they can easily do more. What they soon realise is they plateau. Without proper coaching they can continue on this path for months and even seasons becoming disheartened by poor performance. What they fail to realise is that recovery is just as important as the training. Being full time is what allows them to dedicate time solely on recovery which befits their training level. In many sports there is a finite amount of time to prepare. Looking at the olympics as our example. An olympic athlete may train 5 days a week for 40 weeks of the year. 5 days per week is all he can cope with. Lets say he employs a recovery strategy that takes him from 5 days to 6 days per week. He has just increased his annual training by 40 days. 40 days is an enormous amount of time in terms of competition preparation. Something that may take 15mins post training has just allowed him to train 40 days more than his fellow competitors. When you rationalise it in this way you can see the difference it can make come competition time.

Athletes make recovery a part of their schedule. Here using commercially available compression technology!

Athletes make recovery a part of their schedule. Here using commercially available compression technology!

A good athlete will be just as concerned with their recovery as with their training. There are many forms of recovery playing on many physiological responses. I will cover these in other posts and discuss some potential methods and how they work.

Watts Vs. Heart rate.

This post may be a little controversial amongst endurance athletes but it is an important topic. Any serious endurance athlete will have a training plan. This plan will generally use heart rate or wattage as the variable around which they structure their training sessions. In recent years wattage has become a very popular training variable. It relates more directly to actual speed and performance than heart rate. Team Sky Cycling highlighted the importance of accurate data in their training program and heavily relied on wattage during their Tour De France preparation. It can be very successfully used to build an effective endurance training program. For this reason there has been a big shift towards Watt training and away form the traditional heart rate zone style training. Heart rate data has now become a bit of an optional add on for analysis rather than a training variable, especially with more tech orientated athletes.

While watt training for sure has its merits it also comes with an often overlooked disadvantage. The sessions’ power output targets are pre determined post fitness testing. The athlete knows exactly what wattage needs to be achieved and maintained per session in their plan. The sole focus is to stick strictly to these wattage prescriptions. The issue is that watt training does not factor in readiness to train or physical state. For example an athlete may have a poor nights sleep or be particularly stressed due to some lifestyle factor like work etc. he may even be fatigued from a previous training session. When this athlete comes to their training they might struggle to maintain the prescribed wattage but force themselves to be strict. This can result in a much higher level of stress or intensity than intended when their program was designed. Too many forced sessions can result in overreaching and eventually overtraining. It can also be mentality hard on an athlete to realise they cannot keep up with their training. Things can quickly become counterproductive.

While heart rate does not translate as well into speed or power outputs it is auto-regulatory. This means if you are fatigued, stressed or sick heart rate will reflect this. Heart rate will be generally higher and so you will reach the desired zone with less work. If you use heart rate zones as your training variable things are automatically factored in. In a fatigued state you may achieve the desired HR and duration prescribed but the performance might appear to be poor. In the grand scheme of things this is not a big deal. You are still getting time at the intended intensity and your recovery can cope, avoiding any overtraining type scenario. Over the long term this is actually more productive in terms of physiological improvement and mental state.

While I’m not trying to put people off using wattage for training I think it is important to highlight the issue. If you choose to use watts over heart rate you must be diligent in assessing your training state. You must accept that sessions need to be flexible to account for external factors that wattage on its own will ignore. As with any program following blindly is never a smart approach. There are many factors which can influence performance and success will always be a balancing act.